November 12, 1996. The city of Shymkent in Kazakhstan. A plane chartered by Kazakhstan Airlines took off from this city. Flight to New Delhi. Indian Airplane Crash were several small traders from neighboring Kyrgyzstan. They traveled to India to buy wool to sell in Central Asian markets.
Saudi and Kazakhstan planes communicate
Air traffic controller VK Dutta was on duty that evening. He connected and directed Saudi and Kazakh planes.
Hight of plane
It was he who authorized the Saudi plane to take off from Delhi Airport. Minutes later, the pilots of the Saudi plane reported to him that the plane had reached 10,000 feet. They ask permission to climb to 14,000 feet. Dutta gives permission. On the other hand, the Kazakh plane wants to land. Dutta told the Kazakh plane to stay at an altitude of 15,000 feet. And look no further because the Saudi plane was flying at an altitude of 14,000 feet.
Distance between Planes
The vertical distance between two aircraft must be at least 1000 feet. On his screen, VK Dutta sees two airplanes as blinking dots. Over the next few minutes, he sees the blinking colon approaching. And just like that, two dots merged into one. And then disappear altogether.
Planes crashed into each other
At that moment, Dutta realized that something terrible had happened. About 100 km from Delhi is the small town of Charkhi Dadri. Indian Airplane Crash evening, the people of that city saw a flash of light in the sky that looked like lightning, and then they heard thunder. Before they could even think about what was happening, splinters of iron rained down on them. Two planes collided..
First-time mid-air collision in India
It was the first and only mid-air collision in India. And the worst plane crash in Indian history. “While the search for bodies in the rubble continues, several Muslim victims of the crash have been buried in a mass grave. Indian Airplane Crash, 70 pyres were prepared for Hindu cremation. The investigators have started work on the so-called black boxes from both floors. Learn more about what happened just before the disaster.
“Even as a forensic investigation commissioned by Prime Minister Deve Gowda begins investigating the disaster, experts are exploring various theories that may have caused the tragedy.
Traffic rules of the sky
We must understand the rules of heaven. For example, vehicles driving on roads and roads built on designated routes and whose road is divided into lanes. Likewise, there are marked paths for airplanes in the sky. All aircraft must follow these fixed trajectories. These routes are called Airways. Just as roads are divided into lanes, airways are divided into air corridors. Imagine that there is only one lane for all vehicles on the road. What would happen?
Control Accidents in Air
The probability of an accident would be high. For the same reason, airports have multiple corridors for arriving and departing aircraft. Indian Airplane Crash scope of the incident is limited. The altitude at which aircraft fly is also referred to as flight altitude. According to International Civil Aviation Organization standards, there must be a separation of at least 1,000 feet between two aircraft at flight altitude.
This means that one level must be at least 1000 vertically away from the other. In addition, a radius of 14 km must be maintained for safety reasons. Here are the basic rules of the game and we come to the next question: who guarantees that all planes are always compliant? Air traffic controllers take care of that. The ATCs. The ATCs monitor the flying aircraft from the ground, their position, speed, and their altitude (height). It is very necessary to check these so that the aircraft could be kept safe.
Air Traffic Controllers
Air traffic controllers see it on their screens as flashing dots. Airplanes look like blinking dots on the radar. The next question is: How does ATC get this information? Details of each aircraft. You get this information from RADAR. A radar is a device that uses radio waves to detect objects at a distance. Radar can detect planes, spacecraft, and even tornadoes. However, the radar used to detect aircraft can be divided into two parts.
Primary radar system
System for which antennas have been placed at strategic establishments all over the world, those antennas emit radio waves, and when the radio waves produce after being reflected by the airplanes, Indian Airplane Crash estimates the distance of the plane established on the time taken by the radio wave. Primary radars can tell you the facedown space of an airplane, but they can tell you the length of the airplane. Secondary radars are used to compute the vertical distance.
This is a complex bit of technology. A transponder is put on top of an aircraft, And the radio wave calls from the direct antennas, are caught by the transponder and react with its own signal. With this, it supplies more knowledge about the part of a flight and much more trustworthy information.
In the 1990s Indian Airplane Crash
During the 1990s, when the incident took place, the secondary radar wasn’t used then. The ATCs relied solely on the data from the primary radar. But the data from the primary radar wasn’t as reliable. And then, the ATCS would jot down the height and speed parameters, they would use it to manually calculate and chart the flight path. Can you imagine this? In a busy airport like Delhi, where 20-30 flights land and take off every hour, how tedious this work would have been for the ATCs.
It is still a stressful job, but it used to be actually more stressful since then. And it stood that the ATCs weren’t prepared. They were very knowledgeable and broadly trained. but after a point, the workload and stress become too broad for any person. Delhi Airport’s Deputy Director JS Ahuja had This is why at one point in the 1990s, ATCs were assumed to be the most stressful work in the world.
More stressful than the physicians. Even more than racecar drivers. It was identical in India. The job of the ATCs was particularly stressful. Today, the reliance on humans has decreased by a lot. Data analytics is used, and devices are used for all these. In fact, data analytics is used in almost all fields.
Importance of the English language
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It has many holes in it. If you pile the cheese pieces on top of each other, the holes don’t exactly match with each other. You can look across the slices, because, the case that all the holes would align, is very minor. Even if one hole doesn’t align, you won’t be capable to look at it. It will be unclear. It’s said that it is the same with casualties. The mishaps that take place aren’t because of a superior reason. Rather, multiple reasons align at the right time.
In particular, Indian officials believed that the Saudi plane was not following instructions correctly and that even if the plane were ordered to stay at 14,000 feet, the plane could climb to 15,000 feet and collide with the Kazakh plane.
But when the plane’s black boxes were found, flight data recorders showed an accurate recording of the conversations between the pilots, noting that the Saudi plane was at an altitude of 14,000 feet and the crash occurred between the two planes at an altitude of 14,000 feet. This meant the Kazakh plane crashed from 15,000 feet to 14,000 feet. For what? VK Dutta urged the pilots of the Kazakh plane not to fly below 15,000 feet.
Pilots audio recording
The black-box audio recording showed that the Kazakh plane’s pilots didn’t even properly hear what ATC was saying. They complained to each other about Delhi traffic jams and Delhi airport traffic jams. The second thing they found out was that these Kazakh pilots didn’t even understand English well. In fact, there was a radio operator on the plane who translated ATC messages from English to Russian for the pilots to understand. The accident report stated that the ATC manual contained a misunderstanding.
ATC told them to maintain the flight level at a certain altitude, but they were wrong. Or they thought the manual was for another flight. They misunderstood the instructions and went downstairs. My friends, it was a time when the Soviet Union had recently collapsed, Kazakhstan was a new country, and Russian National Airlines was split into airlines from different countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reputation of these airlines was not good at all.
A pilot is said to have handed over the controls of the plane to his son. There were stories about pilots drinking vodka before landing. In general, the reputation of Russian pilots was not good. But the bigger question is whether a miscommunication could lead to a disaster of this magnitude. Did the system designers rely on good communication between the pilots and air traffic control?
The other issue was the air corridors, which I covered in this video. One air corridor for departing aircraft and one for arriving aircraft. However, that was not the case in the 1990s. There was only one air corridor. Third, as I said, the secondary radars were not being used at the time, so ATC relied on communicating with the pilots.
Indian Airplane Crash Control Indian Government
Lessons have been learned by our government, Indian officials, and aviation experts around the world after this horrific plane crash. They have made many significant changes to the system so that such errors will never happen again. And fortunately, such a mistake has not been repeated in India so far. Since then, no planes have collided in mid-air. What reasons?
First, there are now separate flight corridors for arriving and departing aircraft. Second, the secondary radar, the General Directorate of Civil Aviation is a statutory authority of the central government. Installing secondary radars on aircraft has been recommended for years, but the government pays little attention to it. But as one official said, the government stands ready to act.
The government has mandated the installation of TCAS, a collision avoidance system, on all flying aircraft. TCAS. Indian Airplane Crash Five months after the Charkhi Dadri accident, Civil Aviation Minister CM Ibrahim announced in the Lok Sabha that after December 31, 1998, all aircraft with more than 30 seats in India must be equipped with TCAS. Basically, it’s a system that sounds an alarm on the plane when an airplane approaches 1000 feet vertically. More importantly, when the alarm goes off, this system notifies the pilot of the direction of flight, allowing them to stay 1,000 feet away.
So if another plane approaches you from below, this alarm will sound and tell the pilot to fly high. This was a milestone for India. Because the TCAS technology was very expensive at the time. Many countries complained that they could not equip their aircraft with TCAS because it was very expensive for them. But India did it. And finally, other countries also had to implement this system on their planes. The third issue raised by this incident concerned language and its nuances. When someone speaks, how well can the listener understand them? Could it be misunderstood?
ATC and pilots
Possible misunderstanding between ATC and pilots, how to work around it? More than half of Kyiv ensures that its airlines, pilots, and ATC speak their local language. How can people with such different backgrounds and cultures communicate with each other so that there are no misunderstandings? What could be the solution? In 1998, India raised the issue before the international community, before ICAO. It was suggested that every pilot should have a minimum level of English proficiency to facilitate communication. It was discussed at length.